How to Do a Trademark Search

The most important step to strong trademark protection

Your trademark is likely your most valuable Intellectual Property Asset. If you chose a strong trademark, it will grow in value as your business reputation grows. A trademark is actually a form of protection for your business reputation. It’s what consumers use to identify you. It is analogous to your own good name.

I’ve been involved in the sale of several businesses. In each of these, the purchasers wanted the trademark. It symbolized the goodwill of the business. It alone can increase the multiples that a buyer is willing to pay. The important lesson is, you must choose wisely. It reminds me of the scene in “Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade,” where the Grail Knight says, “You must choose, but choose wisely.”

How to Choose Wisely

The ultimate decision on the best trademark should be done with the advice of trademark counsel, someone who regularly practices  trademark law. But, there are some steps you do on your own.

Choose a strong mark

You want to choose a trademark that is strong. Trademark strength is determined on a scale of weak to strong. The chart below shows examples of trademarks on the scale. It is important to note that weak marks can become strong over time through use, but it is best to start with a strong mark. Strong marks are more valuable and they have a self-policing aspect. It is hard for others to argue they selected their mark innocently when yours is not descriptive or suggestive.

  • Generic marks are common words for common things and cannot be trademarked.
  • Descriptive marks describe a function, feature of the product or service.
  • Suggestive marks suggest a function, feature of the product or service.
  • Arbitrary marks are common words used in an uncommon way.
  • Coined marks are made up of words that have no meaning.

Do a preliminary search

Make a list of your favorite chooses. Then search them on a search engine such as Google to see if anyone is using the marks. You are looking for others that are using a similar mark for similar goods and services. The main question is whether your use of your mark will be considered confusing to consumers. Will consumers believe that you are somehow associated with the existing trademark.

Trademark infringement is the unauthorized use of a trademark or service mark on or in connection with goods and/or services in a manner that is likely to cause confusion, deception, or mistake about the source of the goods and/or services.

You don’t want to choose a mark that is confusingly similar to another trademark. Trademark infringement requires proof that consumers are likely to be confused. Likelihood of confusion is evaluated using a seven-factor test:

  1. the strength of the trademark allegedly infringed,
  2. the similarity of the parties’ marks,
  3. the similarity of the parties’ goods,
  4. the similarity of the parties’ sales channels, distribution, and customers,
  5. the similarity of advertising media,
  6. defendant’s intent, and
  7. actual confusion.

You should stay away from well-known marks. You don’t want to choose a mark that will lead to a lawsuit. Also, your investigation is preliminary.  This is simply  a way to sort out marks that are clearly going to be an issue. The ultimate decision will need to be made by a trademark attorney. There are so many nuances, that choosing a mark on your own is risky. Remember the knight, the statement “He chose poorly”. You don’t want that to happen to your mark. It may not melt, but its value may dissolve and you may be spending time and money in litigation.

You should also search the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The USPTO maintains a record of all trademarks that have been filed, and their status. It is called TESS, the Trademark Electronic Search System. You can search your mark in connection with the goods or services on that site. I have an instruction sheet to help you navigate that search site.

Get legal advice

Once you have culled your list to the best possible marks, contact a trademark attorney for a complete search. Trademark counsel has access to sophisticated searching software that will provide detailed search results. In addition to Federal Registered trademarks, these searches include investigation of state trademark databases, focused internet, domain names, and common law rights. Common law rights are trademarks that are being used but have not been registered. Remember in the United States you can have trademark rights by just using the mark as a trademark. There is no requirement to register a trademark to have rights.

Trademark counsel will conduct the search and render an opinion on the strength, availability for use and likelihood of getting registration.

Federal trademark registration

Once you have your trademark, you should file a trademark application. Federal registration requires that you use your trademark in interstate commerce. Generally, this means that you will use your trademarks in other states. Your attorney will advise you on what use is required.

There are numerous advantages to federal registration.

  • Your trademark is presumed to be valid, which gives you an important advantage in court.
  • It is considered valid throughout the United States, instead of being limited to the geographic area of use under common law.
  • After five years your mark can become incontestable. Basically, incontestability shields the mark against challenges to the validity of the mark based upon descriptiveness.
  • A federal registration allows the use of ® to identify the mark as a registered mark. Most people recognize the ®  as a symbol of your ownership.
  • The federal courts have jurisdiction over disputes involving federal registered trademarks.
  • Your registration protects itself. The mark is easy to find when others are considering choosing a mark. It is publicly shown on the USPTO website. A quick search will lead most sophisticated businesses to your mark, and they will likely pick a different trademark. Few businesses want to pick a trademark that will just get them into litigation.

If you are not going to use your trademark in interstate commerce, then you should register it in your state.

Takeaway

Your trademark is an extremely valuable asset. Immense care must be taken in choosing wisely. Although you can do some of the work on your own, you shouldn’t do it all. The return on investment in having legal assistance will be enormous. The potential loss of your trademark will be devastating in comparison.

Have questions about your Intellectual Property and Trademarks?  Let’s talk and assess your IP. Click here to schedule a time to talk with me.